F-35 Lightning IIF-35A Lightning IIRoleStealth multirole fighterNational originUnited StatesManufacturerLockheed Martin AeronauticsFirst flight15 December 2006 (F-35A)IntroductionF-35B: 31 July 2015 (USMC) F-35A: 2 August 2016 (USAF) F-35C: 1 January 2018 (USN)StatusIn servicePrimary usersUnited States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Navy Royal Air Force See Operators section for othersProduced2006–presentNumber built355+ as of 20 December 2018 Program costUS$1.508 trillion (through 2070 in then-year dollars), US$55.1B for RDT&E, $319.1B for procurement, $4.8B for MILCON, $1123.8B for operations & sustainment (2015 estimate) Unit costF-35A: $89.2M (low rate initial production lot 11 (LRIP 11) including F135 engine, cost in 2020 to be $80M) F-35B: US$115.5M (LRIP 11 including engine) F-35C: US$107.7M (LRIP 11 including engine) Developed fromLockheed Martin X-35
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters. The fifth-generation combat aircraft is designed to perform ground-attack and air-superiority missions. It has three main models: the F-35A conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) variant, the F-35B short take-off and vertical-landing (STOVL) variant, and the F-35C carrier-based catapult-assisted take-off but arrested recovery (CATOBAR) variant. The F-35 descends from the Lockheed Martin X-35, the winning design of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program. It is built by Lockheed and many subcontractors, including Northrop Grumman, Pratt & Whitney, and BAE Systems.
The United States principally funds F-35 development, with additional funding from other NATO members and close U.S. allies, including the United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Turkey. These funders generally receive subcontracts to manufacture components for the aircraft; for example, Turkey is the sole supplier of several F-35 parts. Several other countries have ordered, or are considering ordering, the aircraft.
Imagine a scene from the near-future: You get dropped off downtown by a driverless car. You slam the door and head into your office or appointment. But then where does the autonomous vehicle go?
It’s a question that cities would be wise to consider now. Self-driving cars may be on the roads within the next decade or two.
Automakers and specialized startups alike are aggressively developing automated vehicles (AVs), while government agencies explore ways to reduce regulatory barriers. Ride-hailing companies such as Lyft and Uber plan to operate some AVs, but others could become private robotaxis that drop owners off wherever they like and pick them up later.
Using Seattle as a case study, our analysis suggests that one of the biggest effects of AV technology may be on parking, as AVs leave expensive downtown spots behind in favor of cheaper parking outside the city center.
Parking has a big footprint – and brings big bucks
Parking takes up a lot of land in cities.
Researchers at UCLA estimated that about 5% to 8% of urban land is devoted to curb parking. They estimated that the parking coverage – the ratio of parking area to total land area – in downtown Los Angeles and Houston are about 81% and 57%, respectively.
A 2018 parking study done by the Mortgage Bankers Association found that Seattle’s parking density of 29 parking stalls per acre of land is twice its population density of 13 people per acre.
Because driverless cars could park outside urban cores to avoid the higher parking charges downtown, they might considerably affect urban land use.
And there are potentially big fiscal consequences. Many cities gather a substantial amount of money from parking-related activities, with the 25 largest cities, collectively, generating US$1.5 billion in total revenue from parking fees and taxes in 2016.
In Seattle, for instance, annual revenues from parking meters total about $37 million. In addition, Seattle also collects $39 million and $21 million in annual revenues from commercial parking lot taxes and parking fines, respectively.
Lower demand for parking could mean these funds – traditionally used for city operations including education, cultural resources and libraries – will need to be replaced through other sources of revenue.
Simulating a city with driverless cars
To gauge the potential effects of private AVs on parking, we used Seattle as a case study because data on all its off-street parking lots is available. We looked at factors including energy use, emissions, parking revenue and vehicle miles traveled (VMT), a key statistic used by traffic engineers to measure travel demand.
Our team obtained data from the Puget Sound Region Council on the daily occupancy and parking prices of all paid off-street parking garages and lots in downtown Seattle. We went on to identify areas outside of the downtown area with many unrestricted parking spaces, where vehicles can currently park free of charge during the day.
Then we modeled privately owned AVs searching for cheaper parking, where each vehicle makes parking decisions based on availability and total cost, including both parking fees and all operational costs of the round trip to the parking space. Each AV’s objective is to minimize cost. An AV would not become frustrated sitting in congestion or cruising to find an open curb space, whereas a human driver would.
We varied the operating costs of AVs per mile across a range of values, to understand how future changes either in improved technology or imposed per mile taxes might affect the results.
More miles traveled, fewer parking garages?
We considered a range of possible adoption rates for private AVs, from a point when few high-income early adopters have AVs to total market penetration.
At low penetration rates – where anywhere from 5 to 50 percent of all cars traditionally parked downtown become automated – AVs are usually able to obtain their choice of parking space. In most cases, these are in free parking zones closest to where they drop passengers off downtown.
As more AVs come online, these free parking spaces closest to the downtown area fill up and cars must travel longer distances to obtain cheap parking. As market penetration rates rise, each vehicle would travel additional round trip miles in its quest for inexpensive parking.
With lower numbers of AVs on the road, this would have negligible impacts on the overall total miles traveled by cars in the Seattle region. But if all private cars parking downtown were AVs, the total daily miles traveled by cars in Seattle would increase by about 2.5%, with each AV traveling an additional 8.5 miles each day on average. That change, even if it sounds small, could cause congestion along heavily traveled routes depending on the time day and the mix of human-driven vehicles on the road.
Our simulation shows that there is enough free parking just outside downtown Seattle that AVs would no longer choose to park in downtown lots. At current prices it’s more economical to travel for free parking than to park in a paid lot.
Some private AV owners may rent out their car during the day as a ride-hailing service, but for others it might make financial sense to send their car home during the day and have it pick them up later. That would further increase overall vehicle miles traveled.
No more parking downtown?
As AVs leave downtown, parking lot revenues could decline to the point where owning a parking lot or garage would no longer be economically viable. This presents both challenges and opportunities for cities. Cities could lose a substantial amount of annual parking revenue in a future with more AVs.
We see a few ways that cities could strategically adapt parking requirements to prepare for additional travel by self-driving cars.
For example, cities could implement congestion pricing: a fee or tax paid by users to enter the urban core of the city. They could encourage more public and active transportation, like biking and walking. They could also change the rules for parking in areas where it’s now unrestricted and free, or try a combination of these options.
Cities could experiment with what’s called a scaled VMT tax: a fee for an AV to enter a downtown zone based on the number of miles it’s already traveled that day. This option might discourage an increase in housing sprawl with AVs and reduce the number of people using AVs to get downtown. In addition, encouraging AVs to be powered by electricity rather than gasoline would reduce the environmental impact of any additional travel.
Much of the land devoted to parking lots in today’s cities could be converted to parks, housing or commercial spaces, and reducing curb parking could allow for wider bike lanes or sidewalks. To take advantage of changing parking demand, cities could build adaptable parking garages that can be converted to other uses if they’re no longer needed. Garages with flat floors and exterior ramps, rather than interior ramps, can more easily be converted to commercial uses or housing.
Cities would need to look for other sources of revenues to supplement the money lost from parking taxes, revenues and tickets. Some of these resources may be recovered through VMT and congestion fees, or by replacing underutilized parking structures with new denser uses.
While robotaxis are not here yet, preparing now for changes in downtown parking and infrastructure could help cities respond when privately owned AVs start to hit the streets.
Since President Donald J. Trump expressed his interest in buying Greenland (and Denmark’s prime minister called it absurd), some travel groups, along with the country’s tourism board, have seen an uptick in interest for vacation packages and tours for the country.
Entrepreneur’s Guide to Effective Design of a Facebook Fan Page
Learn what it takes to design a successful fan page on Facebook to promote your business, grow your customer base, and increase your revenue.
Whether you already have a Facebook fan page that needs a design boost or want to establish a business presence on Facebook, this course will help.
Learn how to gain access to more than 1 billion potential customers that are on Facebook everyday, and turn them into your customers without a marketing budget.
Design an Eye-Catching Facebook fan page
Walk through a live setup of a professionally designed fan page
Choose an effective cover photo, profile picture, fan page name, and description
Review case studies of effective fan pages
Build your first online business without a website
A Facebook fan page is the place to meet your potential customers, engage with them, and invite them to share their opinion.
More importantly, it is the starting point of incorporating different marketing techniques, like list building, direct selling, or retargeting.
With a great fan page design, you’ll attract a lot more fans and subscribers, which could lead to more sales and more revenue.
With this course, you will be able to set up a great fan page on Facebook and understand why design and branding really matters.
Contents and overview
The key element that successful Facebook fan pages have in common is a hot design.
You’ll start the course learning how to choose an ideal profile picture and a cover photo that work. These two elements are prime real estate and must be carefully chosen.
Then you’ll discover the secret design strategies that Fortune 500 companies like Apple, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi use on their highly successful fan pages. This will help you understand why a great design is so important.
Next, you’ll be walked through setting up the fan page. You’ll choose your category and a creative and clear fan page name so your visitors can quickly identify what you’re all about. Then you’ll learn how to write a description that sells.
You’ll review case studies of effective fan pages so you can learn how successful companies achieve high results.
By the end of the course, you’ll be ready to start posting content on your fan page, build your fan base, and start developing meaningful relationships with them. Your business will benefit.
How To Build and Launch Your First Online Course While Avoiding the Pain, Frustration and Delays Of Doing It Alone
I see it again and again, so I have to ask.
Are you tired of constantly scrambling to get new clients?
Is marketing sucking up too much of your time while you’re aching to be helping people instead?
And even if you do manage to fill your workshops, do you find yourself wishing there was some way you could help far more people?
And to top it all off, do you find yourself longing for the freedom to spend the time you want on the things and people you love most?
Then you’re not alone…and I can help
You see, I specialize in helping entrepreneurs that face challenges like these every day. My goal? Build greater freedom and control into their businesses and lives.
Does that sound like the sort of help you could use? It should, especially if:
You feel you’re burning out from too much work for too little outcome.
Your revenue model’s not serving you well anymore but you have no idea how to change it.
You’ve toyed with the idea of creating an online course, but the technology scares you.
You’re afraid to let go of the security of what you have to reach for something better.
You see, the Big Leap Bootcamp® gives you the benefit of avoiding all the costly mistakes I made and all the delays I encountered when figuring out this process myself
FOR A LIMITED TIME ONLY: This course is available totally free! Don’t miss out and register now!
That means you can now:
Cut your expenses and time-to-market by a huge margin
Eliminate any fear of technology and online marketing
Stop the nagging worry that you don’t have what it takes
And overcome the paralysis of not knowing where to start
The Big Leap Bootcamp is brought to you by Petra Mayer Consulting in four parts:
Part 1: Strategy for Your Online Courses
Part 2: Planning Your Course
Part 3: Creating Your Course
Part 4: Course Publishing and Launching
I recommend that you follow through all four parts in sequence to get most value.
This program is Part 1 – Strategy for Your Online Course
In this program you will create the strategy for your course. You will get very specific how your course will fit in your business strategy overall. Start with this program to set up the foundation of your course strategy.
I look forward to supporting you in this most important step of your Online Business. Don’t hesitate and join now!
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The Big Leap Bootcamp® is a registered trademark owned by Petra Mayer Consulting. Part 2-4 are coming very soon!
Editor’s note: The high price of college textbooks has long been a sore point for students. Even though the price reportedly went down by 26% since January 2017 – the first decrease in years – the overall trend in recent years has been a steady incline. Amie Freeman, a librarian at the University of South Carolina, explains the forces behind the prices.
1. How much are students spending on textbooks these days?
The National Association of College Stores reports that students spent an average of US$415 each on required course materials during the 2018-2019 school year. The College Board says students should budget $1,240 annually for books and supplies.
Several factors make course materials so expensive. First, there’s not much competition in the textbook industry. Just five publishers control about 80% of the textbook market, and two of those announced plans in May 2019 to merge by early 2020. Second, students have little choice in the materials they purchase since content is usually assigned by professors.
2. How do high prices affect students?
High textbook costs have negative effects on students. Many students report not purchasing required texts, taking fewer courses or even earning a poor grade as a result of not having a required text. For instance, a 2018 survey of students at public colleges and universities in Florida found that the high cost of textbooks had led 64.2% of students to not buy a required textbook and 42.8% to take fewer courses. Additionally, 35.6% said the high cost of textbooks caused them to earn a poor grade and 22.9% said it led them to drop a course.
The cost of textbooks can also lead students to rack up more student debt if they rely on financial aid to pay for course materials.
3. What are Open Educational Resources?
Colleges and universities have been active in promoting and developing affordable textbooks, including Open Educational Resources, more commonly known as OER. Open Educational Resources are educational materials – often in digital form – offered freely and openly for anyone to use.
The use of OER has saved students around the world over a billion dollars, and the vast majority of those savings have been reaped by students in the United States and Canada. Research has shown that students using OER do as well as or better than students using traditional course materials, with even better results for less financially secure students.
4. Is there any downside to Open Educational Resources?
Two of the most common complaints about OER are that there’s not a text available for every subject and that homework assignments and other accompanying materials for OER are not as well developed as commercial offerings. The good news is that both of those downsides are being addressed. Grants and funding allow for the steady creation of a larger base of customizable open textbooks and secondary resources.
Faculty members also express concern over the quality of OER. The quality of OER can vary, but many are written by experts and have faculty reviews available to assist instructors in selecting materials that suit their needs.
5. What else are schools doing to bring down costs?
Some college libraries loan textbooks or provide electronic resources to students for free. One of the biggest efforts going out right now is known as “inclusive access.” This is an arrangement where colleges provide students with discounted digital access to course content on the first day of class by billing the student.
Some colleges work with publishers or bookstores to offer students digital textbook subscriptions. Through these subscriptions, a student pays a subscription fee that gives them access to all the materials they may need from a particular publisher for a semester or a year. If a student is assigned several textbooks from this publisher, it may be worthwhile. However, it probably wouldn’t be a good deal if a student is assigned only one or two texts from this publisher.
6. Will physical textbooks ever become obsolete?
The digital versus print conversation is ongoing, but I think that there will always be learners who are better able to comprehend print over digital content. It’s clear that publishers are moving more toward digital offerings, but it’s unlikely that students will be able to print these materials or buy a print copy without additional costs. OER licenses, on the other hand, usually permit students to print as much content as they’d like, which is beneficial for students who don’t learn as well from digital texts.
7. What can students do to cut costs?
If a student’s assigned materials aren’t automatically charged to his or her tuition, the student could shop around both online and in-store to find the best rate. Some students search one of the many cost comparison sites, such as TextSurf, available online. A student might also consider a digital or physical rental if the student doesn’t plan to use the material after the course ends. If the college or university offers access to textbooks through the library, that’s a great place to save money. Most students who skip purchasing their course materials fear their grade will be negatively affected, so it’s essential that these cost-saving opportunities, alongside the option of open textbooks, are available to students.
Britain’s Prince Andrew said that during the “limited time” he spent with financier Jeffrey Epstein — who was found dead in his prison cell earlier this month — he never saw, witnessed, or suspected “any behavior of the sort that subsequently led to his arrest and conviction.”